Return to the Hawaiian Independence Home Page

Japanese American Citizens' League (JACL)

1992 National Convention



Whereas, the nation of Hawaii became a kingdom, later unified by Kamehameha I in 1810, recognized and duly respected by other nations and kingdoms of the world; and

Whereas, in 1887, King Kalakaua was coerced, under threat of military force, to sign the so-called Bayonet Constitution that made him a ceremonial figurehead; and

Whereas, in January 17, 1893, the United States government through its military forces, under the authority of U.S. Minister John L. Stevens, aided in the overthrow of the constitutional Hawaiian government, headed by Queen Liliuokalani, and helped to establish a Provisional Government, which took full possession of all government functions and buildings of the Hawaiian Islands; and

Whereas, on December 18, 1893, President Grover Cleveland submitted to the Congress of the United States a full report that condemned the role of the American minister and the U.S. Marines in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy and called for the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy; and

Whereas, in 1895, Queen Liliuokalani was arrested by the Republic of Hawaii, tried and found guilty of misprision of treason, was sentenced to five years of hard labor, fined $5,000, held prisoner at Iolani Palace for eight months, later held under house arrest at Washington Place for five months, and restricted to the island of Oahu for another eight months; and

Whereas, in 1898, Congress ignored President Cleveland's previous request and annexed the Hawaiian Islands through the "Newlands Resolution," which was legally questioned as to whether the U.S. Congress had the authority to admit territory in the union by joint resolution, for it is not specified that Congress had the power to acquire territory through any means other than conquest or treaty; and

Whereas, the Japanese American Citizens' League (JACL) recognizes that the actions taken by the United States in the illegal invasion of 1893 are the basis for legal claims for the restoration of human, civil, property and sovereign rights of Hawaii's indigenous people; and

Whereas, the JACL realizes the seriousness and implications of the unlawful overthrow that has yet to be adequately addressed and remedied for over a century of human interaction in Hawaii; and

Whereas, the year 1993 holds special significance for Hawaii for it marks the one hundred year anniversary when the United States military and diplomatic representatives committed the first overt act to overthrow the independent nation of Hawaii; and

Whereas, such a loss of independence and self-determination of the indigenous Hawaiian people remains an important cultural and political factor today; and

Whereas, the JACL recognizes the increasing discussions and debate in Hawaii and in the Congress of the United States of the adverse consequences of such overt acts of military aggression against a peaceful, independent nation, and to the citizens and descendants of that nation today; and

Whereas, the JACL recognizes the even broader issue of equality for all people, irrespective of race, to exercise the right of self-determination in their homelands; and

Whereas, the JACL shares, endorses and encourages American ideals and principles of justice through law, and profoundly believes that the unresolved injustice to one is a harm endured by all; and

Whereas, the JACL believes that the full range or consideration of Hawaii's peoples' rights and freedoms must be completely explored in order to bring about harmony within Hawaii's society; and

Whereas, the JACL in 1984 at its National Convention adopted a resolution in support of sovereignty for the indigenous people of Hawaii, and in 1986 at its National Convention, reaffirmed its support of Hawaii's indigenous people;

Therefore, be it resolved that the JACL determines that 1993 should serve Hawaii, our nation and the world as a year of special reflection on the rights and dignities of the indigenous people of Hawaii; and

Be it further resolved that the JACL recommits and reaffirms its efforts and support of indigenous Hawaiians in their struggles to address the federal government's illegal and immoral wrongdoings committed against them; and

Be it further resolved that the JACL call upon the government of the United States of America to recognize the sovereign nation of Hawaii to correct the injustices of one hundred years ago; and

Be it finally resolved that certified copies of this resolution be transmitted to the President of the United States, the President pro tempore of the US Senate, the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, the chairperson of the U.S. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, the chairperson of the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, the members of Hawaii's Congressional Delegation, the Secretary General of the United Nations, the Governor of the State of Hawaii, and indigenous Hawaiian organizations in Hawaii and throughout the United States of America.

Adopted at the 1992 Japanese American Citizens' League National Convention

Return to the Hawaiian IndependenceHome Page